PS 105 Lesson 2: Communication, Apology, and Resolution
Adverse events in health care undermine the trust that is critical to the clinician-patient relationship. Deciding when and how to communicate with a patient after an adverse event takes good judgment. This lesson offers suggestions, including recommendations for crafting an effective, sincere apology when it is warranted. 
Estimated Time of Completion: 30 minutes
Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
1. List three guiding principles for sharing bad news with patients.
2. Explain the importance of apologizing after something goes wrong.
3. Describe the structure and content of an effective apology.
Contributors
Author(s):
Frank Federico, RPh, Vice President, Senior Patient Safety Expert, Institute for Healthcare Improvement View Profile
Allan Frankel, MD, Managing Partner, Safe and Reliable Healthcare, Safe and Reliable Healthcare View Profile
Editor(s):
Laura Fink, Director, Editorial and Online Learning, Institute for Healthcare Improvement View Profile
Reviewer(s):
Barbara Edson, RN, MBA, MHA, VP, Clinical Quality, Health Research & Educational Trust (HRET) View Profile
Lucian Leape, MD, Adjunct Professor of Health Policy, Harvard School of Public Health View Profile
Wendy Madigosky, MD, MSPH, Director, Foundations of Doctoring Curriculum, University of Colorado Anchutz Medical Center View Profile
Requirements
You must be a registered IHI.org user to take this lesson.
You must achieve a minimum score of 75% to successfully complete this lesson.